Against the Galileans 28

Julian

52 And that Moses calls the angels gods you may hear from his own words, The sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose[ Genesis 6. 2]. And a little further on: And also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became the giants which were of old, the men of renown[ Genesis 6. 4]. Now that he means the angels is evident, and this has not been foisted on him from without, but it is clear also from his saying that not men but giants were born from them. For it is clear that if he had thought that men and not beings of some higher and more powerful nature were their fathers, he would not have said that the giants were their offspring. For it seems to me that he declared that the race of giants arose from the mixture of mortal and immortal. Again, when Moses speaks of many sons of God and calls them not men but angels, would he not then have revealed to mankind, if he had known thereof, God the only begotten Word, or a son of God or however you call him? But is it because he did not think this of great importance that he says concerning Israel, Israel is my firstborn son?[ Exodus 4. 22] Why did not Moses say this about Jesus also? He taught that there was only one God, but that he had many sons who divided the nations among themselves. But the Word as firstborn son of God or as a God, or any of those fictions which have been invented by you later, he neither knew at all nor taught openly thereof. You have now heard Moses himself and the other prophets. Moses, therefore, utters many sayings to the following effect and in many places: Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God and him only shalt thou serve[ Deuteronomy 6. 13]. How then has it been handed down in the Gospels that Jesus commanded : Go ye therefore and teach all nations, baptising them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost,[ Matthew 28. 19] if they were not intended to serve him also? And your beliefs also are in harmony with these commands, when along with the Father you pay divine honours to the son. . . .

53 And now observe again how much Moses says about the deities that avert evil: And he shall take two he-goats of the goats for a sin-offering, and one ram for a burnt offering. And Aaron shall bring also his bullock of the sin-offering, which is for himself, and make an atonement for himself and for his house. And he shall take the two goats and present them before the Lord at the door of the tabernacle of the covenant. And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats; one lot for the Lord and the other lot for the scape-goat[~ Leviticus 16. 5-8] so as to send him forth, says Moses, as a scape-goat, and let him loose into the wilderness. Thus then is sent forth the goat that is sent for a scape-goat. And of the second goat Moses says: Then shall he kill the goat of the sin-offering that is for the people before the Lord, and bring his blood within the vail, and shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar-step, and shall make an atonement for the holy place, because of the uncleanness of the children of Israel and because of their transgressions in all their sins[ Leviticus 16. 15]. Accordingly it is evident from what has been said, that Moses knew the various methods of sacrifice. And to show that he did not think them impure as you do, listen again to his own words. But the soul that eateth of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace-offerings that pertain unto the Lord, having his uncleanness upon him, even that soul shall be cut off from his people[ Leviticus 7. 20]. So cautious is Moses himself with regard to the eating of the flesh of sacrifice.

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